Material Programming

Research Area

The concept of material programming denotes a method of design in which advanced functions are encoded directly within physical fabrication logics and syntax material systems, often in place of digital controls, sensors, and actuators. At the ICD, material programing is investigated through computational fabrication deployed as innovative methods of form generation (self-shaping manufacturing) and form adaptation (adaptive materials, wearables, and building systems) with a specific focus on the utilization of natural and bio-based materials.

Selected Publications

  1. 2023

    1. Speck, T., Cheng, T., Klimm, F., Menges, A., Poppinga, S., Speck, O., Tahouni, Y., Tauber, F., & Thielen, M. (2023). Plants as inspiration for material-based sensing and actuation in soft robots and machines. MRS Bulletin.
    2. Wood, D., Cheng, T., Tahouni, Y., & Menges, A. (2023). Material Programming for Bio-inspired and Bio-based Hygromorphic Building Envelopes. In J. Wang, D. Shi, & Y. Song (Eds.), Advanced Materials in Smart Building Skins for Sustainability (1st ed.). Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
  2. 2022

    1. Akbar, Z., Wood, D., Kiesewetter, L., Menges, A., & Wortmann, T. (2022). A Data-Driven Workflow for Modelling Self-Shaping Wood Bilayer, Utilizing Natural Material Variations with Machine Vision and Machine Learning. In J. van Ameijde, N. Gardner, K. H. Hyun, L. Dan, & U. Sheth (Eds.), Post Carbon - Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (Vol. 1, pp. 393–402). CAADRIA.
    2. Schmitt, J. (2022). Materialien für morgen müssen kreislauffähig sein: Basis Naturstoffe. MD Interior | Design | Architecture, November/December, 24–26.
    3. Correa, D. (2022). 4D printed hygroscopic programmable material architectures. In Research reports / Institute for Computational Design and Construction (Dissertation No. 9, Institute for Computational Design and Construction, University of Stuttgart; Issue 9).
  3. 2021

    1. Wood, D. (2021). Material programming for fabrication : integrative computational design for self-shaping curved wood building components in architecture. ICD Research Report, 6, Article 6.
    2. Tahouni, Y., Krüger, F., Poppinga, S., Wood, D., Pfaff, M., Rühe, J., Speck, T., & Menges, A. (2021). Programming sequential motion steps in 4D-printed hygromorphs by architected mesostructure and differential hygro-responsiveness. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics.
    3. Cheng, T., Wood, D., Kiesewetter, L., Özdemir, E., Antorveza, K., & Menges, A. (2021). Programming material compliance and actuation: hybrid additive fabrication of biocomposite structures for large-scale self-shaping. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 16(5), Article 5.
    4. Özdemir, E., Kiesewetter, L., Antorveza, K., Cheng, T., Leder, S., Wood, D., & Menges, A. (2021). Towards Self-shaping Metamaterial Shells: A Computational Design Workflow for Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of Architectural Scale Double-Curved Structures. Proceedings of the 2021 DigitalFUTURES (CDRF 2021), 275–285.
    5. Cheng, T., Thielen, M., Poppinga, S., Tahouni, Y., Wood, D., Steinberg, T., Menges, A., & Speck, T. (2021). Bio-Inspired Motion Mechanisms: Computational Design and Material Programming of Self-Adjusting 4D-Printed Wearable Systems. Advanced Science, 8(13), 2100411.
  4. 2020

    1. Wood, D., Gronquist, P., Bechert, S., Aldinger, L., Riggenbach, D., Lehmann, K., Ruggeberg, M., Bugert, I., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2020). From Machine Control to Material Programming: Self-Shaping Wood Manufacturing of a High Performance Curved CLT Structure -- Urbach Tower. Fabricate 2020: Making Resilient Architecture, 50--57.
    2. Tahouni, Y., Cheng, T., Wood, D., Sachse, R., Thierer, R., Bischoff, M., & Menges, A. (2020). Self-shaping Curved Folding: a 4D-printing method for fabrication of curved creased origami structures. Symposium on Computational Fabrication (SCF ’20).
    3. Cheng, T., Wood, D., Wang, X., Yuan, P., & Menges, A. (2020). Programming Material Intelligence: An Additive Fabrication Strategy for Self-Shaping Biohybrid Components. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems - Proceedings of the Living Machines 2020 Conference, 12413, 36--45.
    4. Correa, D., Poppinga, S., Mylo, M., Westermeier, A., Bruchmann, B., Menges, A., & Speck, T. (2020). 4D pine scale: biomimetic 4D printed autonomous scale and flap structures capable of multi-phase movement. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 378, 20190445.
    5. Cheng, T., Tahouni, Y., Wood, D., Stolz, B., Mülhaupt, R., & Menges, A. (2020). Multifunctional Mesostructures: Design and Material Programming for 4D-printing. Symposium on Computational Fabrication (SCF ’20).
  5. 2019

    1. Grönquist, P., Wood, D., Hassani, M., Wittel, F. K., Menges, A., & Ruggeberg, M. (2019). Analysis of hygroscopic self-shaping wood at large scale for curved mass timber structures. Science Advances, 5(9), 1311.
  6. 2018

    1. Poppinga, S., Zollfrank, C., Prucker, O., Ruehe, J., Menges, A., Cheng, T., & Speck, T. (2018). Toward a New Generation of Smart Biomimetic Actuators for Architecture. Advanced Materials, 30(19), 1–10.
  7. 2015

    1. Correa, D., Papadopoulou, A., Guberan, C., Jhaveri, N., Reichert, S., Menges, A., & Tibbits, S. (2015). 3D-Printed Wood: Programming Hygroscopic material transformation. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, 2(3), 106–116.
  8. 2014

    1. Reichert, S., Menges, A., & Correa, D. (2014). Meteorosensitive Architecture: Biomimetic Building Skins Based on Materially Embedded and Hygroscopically Enabled Responsiveness. Computer-Aided Design, 60, 50–69.

Contact Information

This image shows Dylan Wood

Dylan Wood

Dr. -Ing. M.Sc. BArch

Research Group Leader | Material Programming

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